Work Exposures and Development of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Systematic Review

Source avec lien : Annals of Work Exposures and Health, (En ligne). 10.1093/annweh/wxac004

Les maladies cardiovasculaires (MCV) sont la première cause de décès, et il existe des preuves que les expositions professionnelles pourraient être associées à leur développement. Cette étude avait pour but d’examiner systématiquement les études d’observation d’adultes exposés au stress au travail, au déséquilibre effort-récompense, aux longues heures de travail, à l’insécurité de l’emploi, au travail posté et au bruit au travail, et d’évaluer l’association de ces expositions professionnelles avec les MCV.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of death, and there is evidence that work exposures could be associated with their development. This study aimed to systematically review observational studies of adults exposed to job strain, effort–reward imbalance, long working hours, job insecurity, shift work, and occupational noise, and assess the association of those work exposures with CVDs.The Navigation Guide framework was applied. The population were adults of working age (18–65), and cohort and case–control studies were included. The work exposures were job strain, effort–reward imbalance, long working hours, job insecurity, shift work, and occupational noise. The outcomes were cerebrovascular diseases, ischaemic heart disease, and hypertensive diseases. The selection, data extraction, risk of bias assessment, and quality assessment were carried out by two reviewers independently and disagreements were solved by a third reviewer or by consensus. The synthesis of the results was done by applying the ‘vote counting based on direction’ method, and the results were summarized in an effect direction plot. The strength of the evidence for every risk factor and CVD was defined by consensus.A total of 17 643 papers were initially identified in the literature search, but after applying the filters by title and abstract, and full text, 86 studies were finally included. From the included studies, sufficient evidence was found of the harmfulness of job strain for cerebrovascular disease and ischemic heart disease. Furthermore, there was sufficient evidence of the harmfulness of shift work for ischemic heart disease. Evidence of no relationship was found between long working hours and shift work with ischaemic heart disease and hypertensive disease, respectively. The other associations of work exposures and CVDs had limited or inadequate evidence of harmfulness.In this comprehensive review, there was sufficient evidence of a harmful relationship between job strain, shift work, and CVDs. For the other work exposures, more high-quality studies are needed. In order to improve current prevention strategies for CVDs, the findings of this review imply that job strain and shift work are work exposures that constitute additional risk factors that could be approached as targets for worksite interventions.PROSPERO CRD42020179972.

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